Histological & Cytological Biomarkers

Histological Biomarkers is defined as a biochemical or molecular alteration in cells, tissues or fluids that can be measured and evaluated to indicate normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Histological Biomarkers have the application of diagnosis and understanding the different levels of anatomical regions such as cell, tissue and organism. In addition, the biomarkers at tissue  level such  as histological alterations in different  organs give valuable information.

Biomarker in cell diagnosis

Protein Phosphorylation Biomarkers

Histopathological Biomarker

Blood and Tissue Biomarker

Stem cell Biomarker

Immune-histological Biomarkers

Cytology has been act as a main tool utilised in the diagnosis of cancer. These techniques have evolved from an era of diagnosis based on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides to the current regular evaluation of tumours by immunocytochemistry (IHC) to confirm tumour histogenesis and subtype. In breast cancer, this means the routine IHC evaluation of hormone receptors (oestrogen and progesterone receptors) as well as evaluation of HER2 expression and Ki67 (a marker of tumour proliferation). These factors strongly influence prognosis and the selection of anti-cancer treatments.

Cytological carcinoma

Cytopathology marker

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